Wednesday, 9 October 2013

Jacque Fresco

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Jacque Fresco
Jacque Fresco and lemon tree.jpg
Born(1916-03-13) March 13, 1916 (age 97)
Brooklyn, New York
OccupationFuturist, social engineer, structural engineer, architectural designer, industrial designer, author, lecturer
Known forThe Venus Project, resource-based economy ideas.
Notable work(s)Looking Forward (1969), The Best That Money Can't Buy (2002)
Jacque Fresco (born March 13, 1916), is an American self-taught structural designer, architectural designer, concept artist, educator, and futurist. Fresco writes and lectures his views concerning sustainable cities, energy efficiency, natural-resource management, cybernetic technology, advanced automation, and the role of science in society. With his colleague, Roxanne Meadows, he is the founder and director of The Venus Project.[3] As an outspoken social critic, Fresco advocates global implementation of a socioeconomic system of social cooperation, technological automation, and scientific methodology, which he refers to as a 'resource-based economy.'[4]
Fresco proposes a radically different society, where ownership of material possessions is unnecessary and where buildings are created in factories by automation. According to Fresco his city designs are aimed to improve daily life and improve the standard of living for everyone. His proposal is for a world wide system of resource control based on a science approach.[5]


Born March 13, 1916,[6] Jacque Fresco grew up in Bensonhurst in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, at the corner of 67th Street and 20th Avenue.[7] Having no interest with formal schooling, Fresco said in an interview that he 'dropped out of school at 14'.[8] Fresco spent free time at the local library where he investigated subjects of his own interest.[9]
Fresco's talent for acting won first prize at a prominent drama competition in New York City.[citation needed] Fresco also expressed artistic abilities in painting and sketching.[10] Fresco later referred to his childhood experience of impoverishment during the Great Depression as influencing his later attitude toward society.[11][12]
Atop the roof of his home at 67th and 20th Ave., Fresco spent time with friends discussing Darwin, Einstein, science, and the future.[13][14]
Fresco attended the Young Communist League. After a discussion with the League president during a meeting Fresco was 'physically ejected' after loudly stating that 'Karl Marx was wrong!'[15][16] Fresco later turned his attention to Technocracy.[9][13] In the mid-1930s, Fresco traveled west to Los Angeles where he began a career as a structural designer.


Aircraft industry, South Seas hiatus

In California, Fresco found work at Douglas Aircraft Company[15] after presenting alternative aircraft designs.[17]
Fresco's alternative designs included both flying wings[18] and a disk-shaped aircraft he referred to as a "flying saucer"[19] with which he attempted to interest the aircraft industry to no avail at a time when experimental construction was underway.[20][21] Fresco sketched designs of a disc-shaped aircraft in 1938.[22] Fresco encountered resistance to his proposals and designs,[23] and thereafter resigned from Douglas due to design disagreements.[15][23]
Fresco traveled to Hawaii in late 1939.[24] From Hawaii he traveled to the South Sea Islands where he interacted with native islanders.[25] Fresco claims that his visit to these islands effectively helped shape his understanding of cultural relativism and the flexibility of human values in alternate environments.[26][27] After returning to California, Fresco took residence at various locations in Hermosa Beach and throughout Los Angeles,[13] meanwhile continuing industrial design projects for various companies.[citation needed]

Army Air Force, Wright Field

In 1942, Fresco was drafted into the United States Army.[13][28] He was soon given technical design duties for the Army Air Force at Wright Field design laboratories in Dayton, Ohio.[13][20][23][29] There he would produce up to forty designs a day,[23] of which one was a "radical variable camber wing" with which he attempted to optimize flight control by allowing the pilot to adjust the thickness of the wings during lift and flight.[30] It received a patent[31][32] and was thereafter given to the Army Air Force.[23][32] Fresco did not adjust to military life and was discharged.[13] Fresco had many advanced ideas for airplane aviation and this gained him a reputation in the aircraft industry for being "a man twenty years ahead of his time"[13][20]

Trend Home

Model of the Trend Home
In the mid-1940s, Fresco was commissioned by Earl Muntz, Michael Shore, and Benn Reyes to design a new low cost form of modernistic housing under the conditions that it be low cost, composed of available materials, be functional, and avoid radicalism.[13][33]
The result was one of the first all glass-aluminum structures called the Trend Home.
Trend Home
At 930 square feet, there were eventually twenty-one variations.[33][34]
The structure could be erected by ten men in eight hours.[35] A high resistance to earthquake and directional shock, despite its abundant glass composition, was an integral feature to its design.[36] Multiple interlocking pieces secured the stability of the structure and it was bolted to a concrete slab.[33] Unconventional methods were utilized to execute various functions. Ventilation was thermal siphoning; ultraviolet was used to eliminate germs and odors; the laundry hamper and wash basin, toilet, and bath were all installed together into a single aluminum unit.[33]
The Trend Home needed federal funding. An official from the Federal Housing Administration arrived at Muntz’s office at Warner Brothers Studios during the summer of 1948. Funding for the Trend Home plan failed. After the official left, Muntz told Fresco through an associate that the feds’ proposal would have added bureaucratic overhead to the production cost, nullified the home’s low cost appeal and that without federal money or additional private investment, the project could not exist beyond a handful of prototypes. Fresco had spent a year and a half on the design and it then hit that final financial impasse.[37]

3D technology

In 1949, Fresco was commissioned by Hollywood producers Jack Moss and Irving Yergin to develop technology for viewing three-dimensional images without the use of eye glasses.[38] The technology developed was for both theater audiences and home television.[38] Novel in its simplicity, it was relatively cheap and required little modification of the projection systems used at the time. The technology also had prospects for being used in medical x-ray units and surgery.[38] It was demonstrated in the summer of 1949 in California.[39] It was presented to Technicolor. Technicolor expressed interest but was unsatisfied with the image fading at 30°. They said, 'get it bigger and call us'. Funding of that project then stopped.[40]

Scientific Research Laboratories

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Fresco created and was director of Scientific Research Laboratories.[29]
Scientific Research Laboratories
Located near Elysian Park in Los Angeles that business later moved to Los Feliz, near Hollywood,[41] to Fresco's home where he also gave lectures, and taught technical design,[15] meanwhile researching[42] and working on inventions as a freelance inventor and scientific consultant.[25] This was Fresco's most prolific period of invention.[43] Fresco asserts that many of his inventions were unconditionally sold to his clients, excluding his name from many of the patents.[citation needed] Fresco also claims that many of his inventions were illegally taken by other associates.[citation needed]
During this period, Fresco struggled to get his research funded[25] and faced setbacks and financial difficulties, in at least one case, resulting in repossession of his lab equipment.[44][45]
Models from Project Moon Base

Science fiction, film industry

Fresco worked as a model designer for science-fiction movies,[13][29] such as the television show Ring Around the Moon which became the film Project Moonbase based on a story by Robert A. Heinlein.[46]
Fresco was noted for high quality models and special effects despite the low budgets of the B-movie productions.[47][48][49][50] Fresco worked as a technical adviser in the film industry, most notably for Lou Stoumen's 1956 documentary The Naked Eye.[51]
In 1955, Fresco left California after his lab was removed to build the Golden State Freeway.[17][15]


Psychological consultation, industrial design

In 1955 Fresco moved to Miami, Florida. He began a business as a psychological consultant though he had no formal education in that area of expertise.[17] He received a 'barrage of criticism' from the American Psychological Association. Fresco eventually ended his consultations. Fresco later acknowledged that absence of a degree was a detriment in academic contexts.[17] In Miami, Fresco held public lectures throughout the late 1950s and 1960s focusing on his views of a rapidly changing future and his critique of cultural and political practices of the era.
In later life, Fresco has described his activities during this earlier period. In one account written by himself, he describes white supremacist organizations which he says he became a member of in order to test the feasibility of changing people. He describes joining the Ku Klux Klan and White Citizens Council in an attempt to change their views about racial discrimination.[52]
32 part car suspension
Fresco spent time in Miami attempting to showcase his designs of a circular city and raise funds to get his design built.[53] He also designed a three-wheeled car that was to have only 32 moving parts, which he strove to fund as well.[53][27][54][55] Fresco made his living working as an industrial designer for various companies such as Alcoa and the Major Realty Corporation.[17] In 1961, with Pietro Belluschi and C. Frederick Wise,[56] Fresco designed a more sophisticated sequel to his earlier Trend Home, known as the Sandwich House.[17] Consisting of mostly prefabricated components, partitions, and aluminum, it sold for $2,950, or $7,500 with foundation and all internal installations.[56] During theses years, Fresco also supported his projects by designing prefabricated aluminum devices through Jacque Fresco Enterprises Inc.[57]

Project Americana

From the mid-1950s and throughout the 1960s, Fresco developed "Project Americana."[17][58] It was a ten-year plan for American social change.[17] The plan included methods for aiding struggling nations by erecting prefabricated factories that would produce prefabricated products for building, installation of cultural centers, and a new curriculum for schooling. In 1962, CBS approached Fresco about developing a series on his ideas after appearing on two successive episodes of On the Town with Fred Fischer.[59]
In 1960, Fresco was introduced to Hubert Humphrey and correspondence continued through the mid-1960s.[27] With Humphrey, Fresco wanted to get Project Americana incorporated and implemented.
In 1969, with Ken Keyes Jr., Fresco coauthored Looking Forward. The first half of the book attempted to explain the causes of problems confronting humanity and potential solutions. Fresco and Keyes described three components they claimed could correctly analyze the future: humanity's values, methods of thinking, and tools i.e. technological developments.[60] All three are described as being interdependent much like a set of gears. The second half of the book was dedicated to theorizing about the possible social implications of a central network knowledge bank (Corcen) used to bring about a "humanized man-machine symbiosis",[61] and a speculative look at the future revolving around the experiences of the fictional characters, Scott and Hella.[62]

Sociocyberneering, Inc.

Project Americana did not gain popular acceptance.[63] Fresco conceived a new concept called "Sociocyberneering." Fresco introduced it at university discussions in 1970 and 1971.[64] In 1971, Fresco founded a non-profit organization Sociocyberneering Inc.[65] It was a non-political and non-sectarian membership organization having, at its peak, 250 members.[66] Fresco frequently hosted educational lectures in Miami Beach and four nights a week at his home in Coral Gables[67] for a small fee, and followed by informal discussions at local cafes.[68] His lecture topics ranged from physics to sociology. Fresco worked with members of the organization to produce designs, films, and booklets advocating the aims and goals of the organization.[66]
Fresco's definition of "sociocyberneering" was "the application of the most sophisticated forms of computer technology in the management of human affairs."[69] His goal was to "investigate alternative solutions based in conservation of energy, international cooperation in all areas of social endeavor, and the assimilation of a systems approach for the design of cities."[70]
Jacque Fresco - Introduction to Sociocyberneering.jpg
Fresco designed a circular city, one mile in diameter with radially connected concentric rings "resembling the spokes of a wheel."[71] At the center of a main dome was a super computer intended to function as a centralized data management system for the city's operation.
Fresco promoted his organization by lecturing at universities[64] and appearing on radio and television.[72][73]
One aim of Sociocyberneering was to locate land in south Florida to build an experimental community in which they would live and expand.[74][75] Investments were made in a few locations. They encountered a setback in 1978 when members feared that the Collier County zoning board would complicate implementation. The result was a near total dissolution of Sociocyberneering Inc. membership.[76] The investment was abandoned and the land was resold. Fresco sold his home[76] and new land for a new project was located in rural Venus, Florida. Fresco then established a research center there in 1980.[77] With help of remaining members, some buildings were constructed at the Venus site. In the 1980s, Fresco worked with Roxanne Meadows to develop the Venus Project, with the plan of producing a movie called, Welcome to the Future.[78]

Later life

Fresco with Roxanne Meadows in Venus
In 1994, Fresco incorporated The Venus Project.[3] Fresco had accumulated a quantity of designs and models that could represent a general outline of how his ideas might look and operate, and these were used to gain exposure for the organization.[12] Fresco and Meadows continued to support the project in the '90s through freelance inventing,[79] industrial engineering, conventional architectural modeling,[27] and invention consultations.[27] In the process, some of Fresco's designs received attention from development companies.[80] In 2002, Fresco published his main work The Best That Money Can't Buy.
At work in Venus studio
Construction in Venus
In 2006, William Gazecki directed the semi-biographical film about Fresco, "Future by Design"[44] In 2008, Peter Joseph featured Fresco in the film Zeitgeist Addendum where his ideas of the future were given as possible alternatives. Peter Joseph, founder of The Zeitgeist Movement began advocating Fresco's approach. In April 2012, the two groups 'split' over differences of how to proceed as cooperating groups, and at that point the Zeitgeist Movement was no longer the "activist arm" of the Venus Project, as it had previously been described by both groups.[27]
In 2010, Fresco attempted to trademark the phrase "resource-based economy"[81] The phrase was reviewed and found to be too generic, and the trademark was denied.
Throughout 2010, Fresco traveled with Meadows, worldwide to promote interest in The Venus Project.[82][83] On January 15, 2011, Zeitgeist: Moving Forward was released in theaters, featuring Fresco.[84]
In November 2011, Fresco spoke to protesters at the "occupy Miami" site at Government Center in Miami.[85] In April 2012, Roxanne Meadows released a film, Paradise or Oblivion, summarizing the goals and proposals of the Venus Project.[86] In June 2012, Maja Borg screened her film, Future My Love, at the Edinburgh International Film Festival featuring the work of Fresco and Roxanne Meadows.[87] [88]
Currently, Fresco holds lectures and tours at The Venus Project location[89][90] and has initiated funding for a major motion picture in which Fresco seeks to depict his vision of the future.[27]
The Venus Project logo

Venus Project

The Venus Project is presented in its literature as the culmination of Fresco's life work. It is located in central Florida near west Lake Okeechobee about fifty miles northeast of Fort Myers. On its 21.5-acre lot, there are ten buildings designed by Fresco. It is partly a research center for Fresco and Roxanne Meadows and partly an educational center for supporters.[91] They produce videos and literature presenting their goals and ideas. According to their literature, their ultimate goal is to improve society by moving towards global, sustainable, technological social design which they call a "resource-based economy".[92]
Fresco believes that there are more than enough resources to take care of all human needs, as long as population is in accordance with the carrying capacity of the environment, however, he describes population as a limiting factor and describes the consequences of overpopulation: "If your population exceeds what the land can support you are going to have territorial disputes, arguments, invasions, and a need for armies." Fresco advocates a complete restructuring of society, minus the present political, economic, monetary system (price system).[93]

Personal life and family

Fresco was born to immigrants from the Middle East, Isaac and Lena Fresco.[6] His father was born in 1880[94] and around 1905 immigrated from Istanbul to New York where he worked as a horticulturalist.[6] He died in 1963.[94] Fresco's mother was born in 1887[95] in Jerusalem and also migrated to New York around 1904.[6] She died in 1988.[95] Fresco was brother to two siblings,[6] a sister, Freda, and a brother, David. Fresco had two marriages when he lived in Los Angeles and carried his second marriage through his first couple years in Miami.[29] He divorced his second wife in 1957 and remained unmarried thereafter.[96] His second wife, Patricia, gave birth to a son, Richard, in 1953 and a daughter, Bambi, in 1956. Richard was an army private[97] and died in 1976.[98] Bambi died of cancer in 2010.[99]
Roxanne Meadows has assisted Fresco since 1976. As Fresco's domestic partner and administrative colleague, she oversees much of the management of the Venus Project.[27]

Fresco's influences

Fresco attributes his influences to Jacques Loeb, who established the Mechanistic Conception of Life; Edward Bellamy, who wrote the extremely influential book, Looking Backward; Thorstein Veblen, who influenced the Technocracy movement and Howard Scott, who popularized it; Alfred Korzybski, who originated General Semantics; and H. G. Wells, among others.[1]

Critical appraisal of Jacque Fresco

It’s a 'lack of professional engagement', William Gazecki who in 2006 completed Future by Design, a feature-length profile of Jacque Fresco says, that has hurt Fresco the most. “The real missing link in Jacque’s world is having put Jacque to work,” Gazecki says, “[It’s] exemplified when people say: ‘Well, show me some buildings he’s built. And I don’t mean the domes out in Venus. I mean, let’s see an office building, let’s see a manufacturing plant, let’s see a circular city.’ And that’s where he should have been 30 years ago. He should have been applying his work, in the real world … [but] he’s not a collaborator, and I think that’s why he’s never had great public achievements.”[100]
Some aspects of Fresco's ideas have been compared to thinkers from the nineteenth century. Titles such as The Paradise within the Reach of all Men without Labor by Powers of Nature and Machinery, Emigration to the Tropical World for the Melioration of All Classes of People of All Nations, and The New World or Mechanical System were written in the 1800s by John Adolphus Etzler who has been described by independent scholar, Anna Notaro, as an early forerunner to Fresco's ideas.[101] Likewise, Ebenezer Howard and his book Garden Cities of Tomorrow, as well as the Garden City Movement during the early 1900s has been described, by Morten Grønborg of Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies, as another predecessor.[102]
Fresco's proposed economy removes the mechanics of traditional economics and his critical view of modern economics has been compared to Thorstein Veblen's concept of "the predatory phase in human development," according to an article in the journal of Society and Business Review.[103] Grønborg has labeled other facets of Fresco's ideology a "tabula rasa approach."[102]
Human value systems often undergo emphasis in Fresco's concepts. According to Jack Catran, "Fresco, [states] the scientist of today is involved in a conflict between two value systems: 1. The orderly world of scientific methodology; 2. The non-scientific culture (and language) which surrounds him on all sides, but in which is embodied the embryo of the future."[104]
Also noted by synergetics theorist, Arthur Coulter, is the organic nature of Fresco's city designs and the evolutionary (rather than revolutionary) development he expects them to take.[105] Evolving Ideas host, Elaine Smitha, compares the relationship and functions between city facilities and humans to the relationships and functions of organismic bodies.[106] Coulter posits such cities as the answer to Walter B. Cannon's idea of achieving homeostasis for society.[105]
Fresco's work has been compared to the work of Paolo Soleri[107] and Buckminster Fuller[108][109] who, according to The Futurist, are classed as "comprehensive designers seeking to realize in practical terms their grand visions of a better future world" while struggling to implement it.[101][110]

Form of Governance, Human Nature, Scientism, Calculation Problem

His hypothesis of a resource-based economy is sometimes equated with Marxism,[108] socialism, communism, or fascism.[111][89][112] Fresco responds to these comparisons by stating, "The aims of The Venus Project have no parallel in history, not with communism, socialism, fascism or any other political ideology. This is true because cybernation is of recent origin. With this system, the system of financial influence and control will no longer exist."[102]
Writing for the Naples Daily News, Steve Schmadeke, notes, "it's also true that his system of governance, in which authority is given to the expert in each field – in this case, specially programmed computers – is one that many writers, including Nobel-prize-winner Friedrich Hayek, have shown to be disastrous."[76]
Independent scholar, Anna Notaro, has suggested a scientistic approach due to Fresco's heavy emphasis on science alone to overcome humanity's obstacles,
His vision is eminently practical, and although this constitutes an innovative and welcome element with reference to previous utopian projections, his focus on science alone makes him fail as a generalist – the criticism Fresco himself passed on academics and scientists. Today's pressing problems require a holistic approach – various disciplines, arts science, philosophy working on a "convergence mode", unfortunately Fresco's vision seems to consolidate the long established view that the "two cultures" (Science and Art) are antagonistic.[101]
Writing for the Ludwig von Mises Institute, Robert P. Murphy has raised the calculation problem against a resource-based economy.[113] In a resource-based economy, Murphy claims there is no ability to calculate the availability and desirability of resources because the price mechanism is not utilized.

Question of Utopianism

Exploring whether Fresco's ideology is utopian, Viktor Vakhshtayn, the director of the Department of Sociology at the Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences, claims that Fresco has carried forth a perspective that bypassed utopian perspectives of the twentieth-century. He describes the whole of Fresco's ideology as "telling us about the deep past of the future." That, "in fact, the whole history of the 20th century is the history of death of utopia. This is in fact what gives Jacque Fresco such power. He jumped from the 19th century to the 21st century, leap-frogging the 20th century. It's a single step from Jules Verne to Jacque Fresco. This is very powerful. This keeps amazing me."[114]
In response to association with utopianism, Fresco has stated, "We do not believe in the erroneous notion of a utopian society. There is no such thing. Societies are always in a state of transition. We propose an alternative direction, which addresses the causes of many of our problems. There are no final frontiers for human and technological achievement."[102]
With a broader conception of utopianism than Fresco, Vakhshtayn upon initial assessment states that Fresco appears to have four out of five characteristic features of utopianism of the nineteenth-century, namely, the belief in rationality of science, belief in the technological process, that technology should better human life, and the overseeing of cities from a center.[114] The only feature remaining to close the question of utopianism is a "final frontier, and this is exactly the element that Fresco is stressing so much." Vakhshtayn concludes by saying, "When we say utopia, we don't mean it cannot be implemented. So many utopias have been implemented in the twentieth-century. And they were discredited because they were actually put into life." Vakhshtayn further accuses Fresco of not answering the "epistemological" question, i.e. how does one certainly know that a course of events will unfold as one expects them to.[114]
Focusing on accusations of utopianism, Nikolina Olsen-Rule, writing for the Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies, remarks, "For most people, the promise of the project sounds like an unattainable utopia, but if you examine it more closely, there are surprisingly many scientifically founded arguments that open up an entire new world of possibilities."[115] Morten Grønborg, also of Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies, points out,
Perhaps the modern interpretation of the word "utopia" is to blame when the Renaissance man and futurist Jacque Fresco says ... he doesn't want to call his life work, The Venus Project, a utopia. However, this visionary idea of a future society has many characteristics in common with the utopia. ... the word utopia carries a double meaning, since in Greek it can mean both the good place (eutopia) and the nonexisting place (outopia). A good place is precisely what Fresco has devoted his life to describing and fighting for.[116]
Notaro suggests instead that "The Venus project is no static utopia, rather a dynamic one: it requires an incremental process driven by an ever-changing extropic ideal."[101]


Hans-Ulrich Obrist notes, "Fresco's future may, of course, seem outmoded and his writings have been subject to critique for their fascistic undertones of order and similitude, but his contributions are etched in the popular psyche and his eco-friendly concepts continue to influence our present generation of progressive architects, city planners and designers."[117]
When asked by a FOX reporter why he has such difficulty actualizing his many ideas, Fresco responded, "Because I can't get to anybody."[118]
Fresco's work gained the attention of science fiction enthusiast and critic, Forest Ackerman,[13] who compared Fresco to H. G. Wells, Aldous Huxley, Philip Wylie, Hugo Gernsback, Arthur C. Clarke, Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein, Edgar Rice Burroughs, and Ray Bradbury.[119] Fresco would later attract Star Trek animator, Doug Drexler, who worked with Fresco to produce several computer renderings of his designs,[120] as well as Arthur C. Clarke who, late in his life, briefly attempted to help Fresco get exposure for the Venus Project.[121]
Commenting on what he sees as Fresco's inspirational and charismatic teaching methods, physicist, Paul G. Hewitt, cites Fresco as being one of the three major sources of inspiration, turning him toward a career in physical science.[67][122]
At Drexel University, sociologist and futurist, Arthur B. Shostak, often incorporated Fresco's work into his teaching and publications, stating,[123]
His contribution to futuristics is singular, as few, if any around the globe, dare the sweep, the depth, and the drama of his vision. When he writes or speaks, futurists grow quiet, pensive, and finally, appreciative – as his work is sound in its call for a thorough examination of the assumptions under which we labor. While little of his vision may materialize in the lifetime of us all, our grandchildren may yet salute much of what Jacque first helped them set in motion.[12]
In 2008 the Prophet Rael of the Raelian Movement gave Fresco its Honorary Guide award, saying he had dedicated "his life to the betterment of humanity as a whole, not just one country, one race, one religion, but the whole of humanity."[124] Fresco received the International Design Award in 2009 from the a! Diseño organization of Mexico. In 2010, it was announced that Fresco was selected to receive the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Exemplar-Zero Initiative in the summer of 2011.[125] In April 2012, Fresco was honoree at Sustainatopia in Miami.[126]





  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "A Personal Interview With Jacque Fresco". The Venus Project. Retrieved: March 30, 2011.
  2. ^ Rolfe, Lionel (1998), "Unpopular Science", Fat Man on the Left, Los Angeles: California Classics Books, p. 165, ISBN 978-1-879395-01-5 
    • a "Both Fresco and Catran were enthralled with Wiener's cybernetics theory, for it fit well with their theories of mechanism ..." – p. 165, ¶ 3
  3. ^ a b The Venus Project Inc., Florida Department of State Division of Corporations, retrieved 2013-05-28 
  4. ^ TED X. talk Retrieved September-5-2013
  5. ^ BBC news Retrieved September-06-1013
  6. ^ a b c d e 1930 Census (Original Document), Brooklyn, New York: U.S. Department of Commerce, April 3, 1930 
  7. ^ Retrieved September-5-2013
  8. ^ Retrieved August-22-2013
  9. ^ a b Catran, Jack (1988), "Genesis – Bensonhurst Beginnings", Walden Three, Sherman Oaks, CA: Pygmalion Books/Jade Publications, pp. 64–68, ISBN 978-0-936162-30-0  Memior uses pseudonyms; here replaced with actual names.
    • a "Bensonhurst, specifically the corner of 67th Street and 20th Avenue ..." – p. 64, ¶ 2; "Nearly everybody living in Bensonhurst was a member of a minority; the minorities made up a majority of the neighborhood." – p. 68, ¶ 4
    • b "The thirst for learning in the crowded public libraries, was to be seen to be believed." – p. 65, ¶ 3
    • c "For us Technocracy obsoleted Marx overnight ..." – p. 65, ¶ 5
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Catran was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Jacque Fresco (May 12, 2010). The Great Depression (Digital Video). Venus, Florida: thevenusprojectmedia. 
  12. ^ a b c Ynclan, Nery (July 18, 2002). "Engineer Builds A Foundation For Utopian Dream World". Houston Chronicle (Houston). p. 3. 
    • a "Fresco says his interest in creating a dramatically different social order emerged from the heartaches of the Great Depression." – p.3, col. 4, ¶ 5
    • b-c "He uses the expertly crafted models made by Meadows to make movies he sells to high school teachers and university professors intrigued by his ideas. The tapes and books, and the models Meadows creates of commercial real estate projects, provide the couple income to keep their hope of finding a major backer for The Venus Project alive." – p.3, col. 5, ¶ 3
    • d "His more immediate goal is to find the funding to make a feature-length film of his techno-utopian lifestyle so his theories can reach a mass audience." – p.3, col. 2, ¶ top
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rolfe, Lionel (1998), "Unpopular Science", Fat Man on the Left, Los Angeles: California Classics Books, pp. 166–170, ISBN 978-1-879395-01-5 
    • a "Fresco never got past elementary school. 'It was all bullshit to him,' Catran said." – p.166, ¶ 3
    • b "For a period in the '30s, the 'gang' gathered at night on the roof of Fresco's building in Bensonhurst. The conversation was science." – p.168, ¶ 1
    • c "After a while Fresco also discovered Technocracy ..." – p.168, ¶ 2
    • d "Catran moved in and now all the old gang around Fresco was ensconced in Hermosa Beach." – p.168, ¶ 4
    • e "Fresco was standing in an Army induction line outside the Warner studios." – p. 69, ¶ 4
    • f "Fresco's talents, however, did not go unnoticed by the Army. He was assigned to a special futuristic unit of the Army's Air Force ..." – p.169, ¶ 4
    • g "Fresco didn't adjust to Army life and was eventually discharged ..." – p.169, ¶ 4
    • h "Fresco was not unknown in the early days of the aircraft industry." – p.159, ¶ 1
    • i "Earl 'Madman' Muntz spent $500,000 ... on something called the Trend Home." – p.170, ¶ 1
    • j "The idea was simply that a home of aluminum could be manufactured quickly and cheaply for all the GIs coming home from the war ... A man from the Truman administration did come to look the project over ..." – p.170, ¶ 1
    • k "He was the technical adviser on a number of other science-fiction movies." – p.170, ¶ 3
    • l "Fresco had asked his brother Dave Fresco (who became a character actor in Hollywood), what an atheist was." – p.167, ¶ 1
    • m "Fresco was not without his influential admirers. Forrest Ackerman, the well known science-fiction impresario ... was always terribly taken with Fresco." – p.170, ¶ 2
  14. ^ Catran, Jack (1988), "Genesis – Bensonhurst Beginnings", Walden Three, Sherman Oaks, CA: Pygmalion Books/Jade Publications, pp. 69–70, ISBN 978-0-936162-30-0 
    • a "The advantage of a high school education escaped him, a most fortunate quirk of destiny, for it was that very fact that contributed to his genius; I always suspected that the lack of a formal education was what made him an authentic original." – p.70, ¶ 1
    • b "The story of Johnny Califano, the son of an Italian gangster and a mother dying of overwork, won him the coveted first prize in an All-City drama competition." – p.69, ¶ 3
    • c "his ability to draw and paint, and his unquestioned skill with theatrics, attracted many intellectuals of the day ..." – p.69, ¶ 4
    • d "We spent many hours in that small flat, listening to Jacque expound on Darwin, Einstein, the scientific method, the design of high-speed aircraft, the future, behaviorism, and the indignities of suffering through another impoverished northeastern winter." – p.70, ¶ 4
  15. ^ a b c d e Rolfe, Lionel (1998), "Unpopular Science", Fat Man on the Left, Los Angeles: California Classics Books, pp. 158–161, ISBN 978-1-879395-01-5 
    • a "Fresco was not just Catran's mentor – he was also his boyhood chum in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn, where the two grew up together at the bottom of the Depression." – p. 161, ¶ 5
    • b "At one point during the Depression Fresco had been attracted to the theories of Karl Marx. But he finally decided – and was brave enough to declare as much at a public meeting of the Young Communist League, from which he was physically ejected – that Marx was all wrong." – p. 160, ¶ 1
    • c-d "As a Douglas aircraft employee, he had argued with his chief engineer about an airplane design. Fresco warned that it would crash during its first big test. It did, killing two people.." – p. 159, ¶ 1
    • e In the early '50s I went to Fresco's laboratory every Saturday morning ... to take lessons in technical illustration." – p. 159, ¶ 3
    • f "Jacque Fresco ... had moved to Miami in the Mid-'50s, after the State of California had destroyed the laboratory to make way for the Golden State Freeway." – p. 161, ¶ 3
    • g "Fresco had a circle of disciples who considered him next only to Albert Einstein, although the friends and relatives of those disciples often thought Fresco was a fraud and charlatan." – p. 158, ¶ 2
  16. ^ Catran, Jack (1988), "Genesis – Bensonhurst Beginnings", Walden Three, Sherman Oaks, CA: Pygmalion Books/Jade Publications, p. 79, ISBN 978-0-936162-30-0 
    • "But this time Fresco stood up, and from the rear of the hall, barked loudly over the startled heads of the crowd, crackling the reverent silence: 'Karl Marx was wrong!'" – p.79, ¶ 1
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Smith, Mac. (December 31, 1961). "A Look Ahead Through Fresco's Window". Florida Living Magazine (Miami). pp. 2–3. 
    • a "With a batch of futuristic drawings of saucer-like aircraft as his credentials (this was in 1935), he surprisingly landed a job in the design department of Douglas Aircraft." – p. 2, col. 2, ¶ 3
    • b "he designed and built an all-aluminum-and-glass 'house of tomorrow' that was featured in Architectural Record and attracted 20,000 visitors while displayed at Warner Brothers Studio." – p. 2, col. 2, ¶ 3
    • c "Los Angeles smog and a new expressway that claimed his lab sent Jacque Fresco to Florida." – p. 2, col. 2, ¶ 3
    • d "Here, he set up a sideline as a psychological consultant." – p. 2, col. 2, ¶ 4
    • e "When he ran head-on into a barrage of criticism by the American Psychological Association directed at non-accredited psychologists he gave up his psychology business." – p. 2, col. 2, ¶ 4
    • f "It is a detriment in pure academic circles, he frankly admits." – p. 2, col. 2, ¶ 2
    • g "He still conducts periodic public lectures designed to help modern man understand his part in 'today's complex and rapidly changing world.'" – p. 2, col. 2, ¶ 4
    • h "He occasionally takes a welcome time out for a paying job as an industrial designer. His last 'big job' was a consultant for Major Realty Company ... Major collaborated on the project with Alcoa." – p. 3, col. 3, ¶ 2
    • i "Harold M. Gerrish, manager of Major's Florida properties, reported that models of the first aluminum sandwich houses (aluminum exterior and hardwood interior sandwiches around foam insulation panels) are being erected in Tampa now." – p. 3, col. 3, ¶ 2
    • j "He chips off the words 'Project Americana' in thick chalk on the worn blackboard built into the wall." – p. 2, col. 3, ¶ 1
    • k "'Americana' is to be the culmination of a 10-year plan launched by Jacque some eight years ago. – p. 3, col. 1, ¶ 1
    • l "Anyone wise to 'crackpots' and keen on conventional procedures for progress would never stray beyond Jacque Fresco's front door ..." – p. 2, col. 3, ¶ 7
    • m "you begin to wonder if Jacque Fresco could be a modern day version of another Frenchman of the past, a Jules Verne with a real-life vision of the future ... OR if he is the kind of crackpot Galileo was in his day and Edison in his with a real grasp of the working principles of tomorrow." – p. 2, col. 3, ¶ 7
  18. ^ I. "Flying Wing", Great Lakes Technocrat., Vol. 11, No. 11, July–Aug. 1944: 34 
    • "This is an original design depicting a huge Flying Wing of 70 ton capacity. It will probably be of the pusher type, using dual rotation propellers or jet propulsion. The undercarriage and power plant are housed within the aerodynamically designed wing. Flying Wings derive stability by means of a 'washout' arrangement. The wing tips have a slight degree of twist downward. Turning is [a]ffected by the ailerons." – p. 34, ¶ caption
  19. ^ Chapter 11,, retrieved 2013-05-28 
  20. ^ a b c Scully, Frank (1950), "The Aerodynamic Correction", Behind the Flying Saucers, New York: Henry Holt & Co., pp. 122–123 
    • a "In 1938 Jacque Fresco designed a flying saucer but at that time the aircraft companies said the model was too far ahead of anything they could handle and it was shelved ..." – p. 122, ¶ 3
    • b "the model was too far ahead of anything they could handle and it was shelved while he worked on a more conventional job, which he did at Pearl Harbor, just before the war, and some Buck Rogers contributions which were his lot at Wright Field during the conflict." – p. 122, ¶ 3
    • c "In the aircraft industry Fresco is known as the man who is forever twenty years ahead of his time." – p. 123, ¶ 5
  21. ^ I. Gelatt, Roland., "In a Saucer from Venus", Saturday Review., Vol. 33, Sept. 1950: 21  II. Scully, Frank. (February 7, 1951). "Construction Possibilities of Flying Discs Discussed". Charleston Daily Mail (Charleston, WV). p. 8. 
    • "To show me how far it would be safe to go he sketched some saucers that could be built even now. He started out with a modest job that was his model of 1938. It had eight jets spaced around the rim of the saucer like a pinwheel firecracker. The center rotated on a turbine held in position like a helicopter, while the outer rim revolved on a turbine. It was before turbo-jets and hence considered impractical at the time. [...]" – p. 8, ¶ 6
    III. McPartland, John. (August 13, 1952). "Strange Objects in Our Skies". Pacific Stars and Stripes (Tokyo). p. 9. 
    • "Jacque Fresco drew this conception of a transparent metal turret with a series of cambered blades on the disc's surface shown at the top of the page." – p. 9, ¶ caption
  22. ^ Flammonde, Paris (1971), "The Wonders of Our Discontent", The Age of Flying Saucers, New York: Hawthorn Books, p. 31 
    • "Leo Bentz's asserted witnessing of a disc-shaped craft designed by George de Bay in 1928 and a demonstration of Jacques Fresco's "flying saucer" a decade later." – p. 31, ¶ 1
  23. ^ a b c d e Andreeva, Tamara. (March 6, 1950). "Advanced Plane Ideas Rejected". Abilene Reporter-News (Abilene, TX). p. 9. 
    • a "He was shelved in the rungs of office hierarchy. Although his advanced ideas were hot, there were older engineers on the payroll and so Fresco's ideas had to wait. It was upsetting to Fresco because frequently before a model was finished on paper he could foresee its unsafe feature. He would warn the engineers about them. No one would listen to him. And if anyone listened, they resented his advice." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 4
    • b "In two cases, his predictions came true when planes of which he spoke as unsafe, cracked up costing several lives ... After that he followed the only logical course open – he quit." – p. 9, col. 3, ¶ 1
    • c "Fresco was transferred to the design laboratories at Wright Field." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 4
    • d "From his prolific drafting boards poured design after design that startled even the military experts in the particular type of logistics. [...] He produced as many as 40 designs a day ..." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 2, 8
    • e "He also invented a 'variable camber' wing, patent for which he gave to Uncle Sam." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 8
    • f "Long before they appeared as standard designs of leading aircraft plants, Fresco had foreseen such developments as the flying wing, the dual rotation props, the washout wingtips and pusher airplanes." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 3
  24. ^ Passenger List (Original Document). Los Angeles: U.S. Department of Labor Immigration and Naturalization. October 13, 1939. 
  25. ^ a b c Andreeva, Tamara. (March 3, 1950). "Frustrated Genius". Olean Times Herald (New York). p. 13. 
    • a "From Hawaii he went to the South Seas to relax." – p. 13, col. 3, ¶ 2
    • b "Many of them [medics] as well as many practicing scientists gather in Fresco's home or come to him for practical advice or a solution to some problem ..." – p. 13, col. 3, ¶ 5
    • c "Because he was broke he sold all rights to an invention almost as quickly as he designed one." – p. 13, col. 3, ¶ 3
    • d "The only unfortunate part about Fresco's investigations is that he holds no formal degrees and stuffy medics shy from endorsing his research." – p. 13, col. 3, ¶ 5
  26. ^ Keyes, Ken; Fresco, Jacque (1969), "Our Values Chart Our Course", Looking Forward, New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., p. 46, ISBN 978-0-498-06752-5 
    • "It took Fresco a while to grasp fully the significance of such a system of values based on need and use, instead of ownership." – p. 46, ¶ 3
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Gore, Jeff. (October 13, 2011). "The View from Venus". Orlando Weekly (Orlando, FL). 
    • a "This experience helped to shape what appears to be Fresco’s core ideological principle: that there is no such thing as “human nature,” and hence, a resource-based economy – the most logical and equitable system he can imagine – would not be imperiled by innate greed." – ¶ 20
    • b "In 1969 Fresco built a prototype of the car, powered by a Villiers motorcycle engine placed behind the front wheel."
    • c "Letters exchanged between then-U.S. Senator Hubert Humphrey (who would later be elected vice president of the United States along with President Lyndon B. Johnson) and Gerald Barron, a California attorney and one-time U.S. House candidate who thought highly of Fresco. This correspondence occurred around the time the city of Washington, D.C., was planning its mass transit system. When Fresco finally met Humphrey, he recommended that the train be built above ground to save both financial and material resources; the top of the above-ground tunnel, Fresco argued, could be used as a raised pedestrian walkway."
    • d "The end of the war meant low demand for warplanes, and Fresco figured that the production of Trend Homes could save metal-working factories from shedding workers or shutting down completely. The homes would also solve the problem of housing for the tens of thousands of soldiers who had returned home from the battlefields and were starting new families." – ¶ 1
    • e-f "Meadows designed multi-million dollar luxury homes for powerful real estate developers – how she would “prostitute” herself, she says – and Fresco consulted on aspiring inventors’ designs." – ¶ 23
    • g "But it didn’t last – the partnership ended in April of this year..." – ¶ 22
    • h "currently, they are raising funds for a “major motion picture” in which the protagonist would be modeled after Jacque Fresco." – ¶ 24
    • i "in 1976, he met the woman who would become his romantic and professional partner, architect Roxanne Meadows." – ¶ 3
  28. ^ Jacque Fresco World War II Army Enlistment Records, The National Archives. Retrieved: December 20, 2011.
  29. ^ a b c d "A Trip to the Moon". The Miami Herald Sunday Magazine (Miami). April 8, 1956. pp. Section G. 
    • a "Fresco was a corporal with the Air Force design development division at Wright field for 18 months during World War II." – col. 2, ¶ 7
    • b "For the past seven years he had operated his Scientific Research Laboratories in Los Angeles." – col. 2, ¶ 5
    • c "He also worked as a movie technical adviser during the time." – col. 2, ¶ 6
    • d "Fresco moved to Miami with his wife and 3-year old son about seven months ago "to escape Los Angeles smog." – col. 2, ¶ 5
  30. ^ "Wing Changes Its Camber", Popular Science., Vol. 150, No. 5, May 1947: 115 
    • "A hublike hydraulic jack unit, joining a number of flexible spars from points along the wing's edges, increases or decreases space between the wing's surfaces, thus giving the pilot constant control over the wing's performance."
  31. ^ "Hydraulic Jack to Alter Airplane Wing's Camber", Science News Letter., Vol. 50, No. 20, (November 16, 1946).: 310, JSTOR 3923108 
    • "The old dilemma of the camber of an airplane's wings ... has challenged Jacque Fresco of Hollywood, Calif., for patent 2,410,056."
  32. ^ a b U.S. 2410056, Fresco, Jacque, "Variable Camber Wing", issued January 11, 1945 
    • b "The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to me of any royalty thereon." – p. 1, col. 1, ¶ 1
  33. ^ a b c d "Another Try to Beat the Housing Shortage", Fortnight., Vol. 5, No. 4, August 13, 1948: 18 
    • a "Shore outlined his conditions: make it low-priced, use available materials, make it functional but not radical. Fresco set to work." – p. 18, ¶ 2
    • c "Essental framework pieces are riveted at the plant, slotted together and bolted at the construction site. The house is anchored to a concreet slab by bolts[...]" – p. 18, ¶ 4
    • d "Ventilation is thermal syphoning, based on normal upflow of warm air and ground-level intake of cool air. Special lighting kills germs, odors. [...] laundry amper, wash basin, toilet and bathtub all in one piece of aluminum." – p. 18, ¶ 4
    • e "Added accessory ($400 more) will be a one-piece kitchen unit, including a high-frequency stove able to cook a steak in three seconds and a supersonic dishwasher using underwater sound waves to clean plates." – p. 18, ¶ 4
  34. ^ "$5000 Factory Built Home Offered to Solve Housing". Los Angeles Daily News (Los Angeles). March 3, 1947. p. 17. 
    • "The basic design – there are 12 variations – is a four-room unit comprising two bedrooms, a living room, kitchen, dinette, bath, garage, and patio. It measures 930 square feet overall, considerably more than the minimum set by federal housing agencies." – p. 17, ¶ 7
  35. ^ "New Home Built of Aluminum". Los Angeles Examiner (Los Angeles). June 2, 1948. p. 7. 
    • a-b "...eight men working 10 hours can erect it – and it will cost only $5200 on a mass-produced basis." – p. 7, ¶ 3
  36. ^ "The House of Tomorrow", The Technocrat., Vol. 16, No. 8, Aug. 1948: 12 
    • "The structure is over-stressed against earthquake, lateral shock and winds of any recorded velocity." – p. 12, ¶ 5
  37. ^ Retrieved Aug-31-2013
  38. ^ a b c "Third Dimension Films By Spring Are Forcast", Daily Variety., Vol. 175, No. 8, August 3, 1949: 16 
    • a "New process, invented by Jacques Fresco, who is partnered with Moss and Yergin" – p. 16, ¶ 2
    • b "Third-dimensional films for both motion pictures and television were reported yesterday to have been developed to such a point that they will be ready for motion picture theatres and video by next spring." – p. 16, ¶ 1
    • b "Previously declared an impossibility by experts, principle is now in final stages of perfection. New process, Moss declared, will be more revolutionary than sound. Cost of installing third-dimension for motion picture and television projectors will be minute according to Moss. A simple device will be attached to projector, and this will give films the third dimensional projection. There will be no costly overhaul of machines to install new principle of projection. Eastern banking and manufacturing interests are backing project. Process also is slated to play a vital part in medical x-rays and surgery." – p. 16, ¶ 3
  39. ^ "Claim Quick Method for 3-Dimension Pix", Variety., Vol. 175, No. 8, August 3, 1949: 5 
    • "Device will be demonstrated on the Coast Aug. 27 when its commercial feasibility for films and video will be tested." – p. 5, ¶ 2
  40. ^ Funk, Walter (January 22, 2012.), "History of Autostereoscopic Cinema", Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIII., Vol. 8288: R1–R25 
    • "In the US, inventor Jacque Fresco developed a 3D projector (Fig. 11c) that worked without glasses during 1940s in conjunction with movie producer Jack Moss. [...] Moss backed it to a certain point, then they showed it to Technicolor to get more funding. Technicolor was impressed but wanted it bigger and had issues with the image fading at 30°. They said, 'get it bigger and call us'. Moss's response was 'if we get it bigger, we don't need you.' He was unable to fund it any further[...]" – p. R16, ¶ 4
  41. ^ Scientific Research Laboratories, California Secretary of State. Entity #: C0354076. Retrieved: February 16, 2011.
  42. ^ "Plastics with a Charge Have Magical Effects", Popular Mechanics., 'Vol. 104, No. 6, Dec. 1955: 149 
    • "It may be that in the future your umbrella will consist of nothing more than a small plastic knob on the end of a stick, if the research being done by Jacque Fresco in his small Los Angeles laboratory is successful." – p. 149, ¶ 1
  43. ^ Andreeva, Tamara. (March 30, 1950). "Inventions by the Hundred, Fresco Still Going Strong". Baldur Gazette (Baldur, Manitoba). 
  44. ^ a b Gazecki, W. (2006). Future by Design. Docflix.
  45. ^ "Auction". Los Angeles Times (LA). October 23, 1949. p. 26. 
    • "Auction Thursday, Oct. 27th, at 10:30 A.M. on the premises of Scientific Research Laboratories 2835 Riverside Drive, L.A. Scientific & Experimental Eqpt. Machine Shop – Photo & Office"
  46. ^ Project Moonbase, Internet Movie Database. Retrieved March 9, 2011
  47. ^ Warren, Bill (1997), Keep Watching the Skies, Jefferson, NC: McFarland Classics, p. 145, ISBN 978-0-7864-0479-7 
    • "The special effects by Jacques Fresco are surprisingly good for a television production." – p. 50
  48. ^ Miller, Ron (July 1993.), "Spaceflight & the Cinema", Acta Astronautica., Vol. 30: 388 
    • "The special effects are distinctly low budget though not at all ineffective. There are interesting spacecraft designed and modeled by Jacques Fresco." – p. 388, col. 2, ¶ 1
  49. ^ Johnson, John (1996), "Special Visual Effects", Cheap Tricks and Class Acts, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, p. 50, ISBN 978-0-7864-0093-5 
    • "Ackerman also named Jacques Fresco, but Corman was working on a film that would cost less than $25000 to make, and he only had a few hundred to blow on his monster." – p. 50, ¶ 5
  50. ^ McGee, Mark Thomas (1984), Fast and Furious: the Story of American International Pictures, Sherman Oaks, CA: Mcfarland & Co, p. 21, ISBN 978-0-89950-091-1 
    • "'Well,' Forry drawled, 'there's a chap named Jacques Fresco that might be more in your price range. Do you want his number?' Not long after Roger was back on the phone to Forry. 'He wanted a thousand dollars!'" – p. 21, ¶ 3
  51. ^ The Naked Eye, Internet Movie Database. Retrieved March 9, 2011
  52. ^ Fresco, Jacque (January 28, 2012). "The Immaculate Pig Experiment". TVP Magazine. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  53. ^ a b Roberts, Jack. (August 7, 1978). "A Dreamer with a Plan for the Future". The Miami News (Miami). pp. 5A. 
    • a,b "In the 1960s he was trying to get people to build his city and take an interest in a three-wheel car he developed which has only 32 parts." – p. 5A, col. 2, ¶ 1
  54. ^ Rau, Herb. (February 10, 1961). "Dateline Miami". The Miami News (Miami). pp. 3B. 
    • "Tipster says a man named Jacques Fresco, in the S.W. section, has 'perfected' an automobile that can be mass-produced for $700, the vehicle having only 32 moving parts."
  55. ^ Tyler, Sharon. (July 8, 1968). "Technocratic Age Coming For U.S.". The Miami Herald (Miami). 
    • "the inventor of a 32-part car, which lies unfinished in a garage due to lack of funds." – ¶ 8
  56. ^ a b "$2,950 House Shell Made of Aluminum". The New York Times (New York). May 28, 1961. pp. 1R, 8R. 
    • a "The shell was developed in consultation with Prof. Pietro Belluschi, dean of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; C. Frederick Wise, architect, of Rosemont, Pa.; and Jacques Fresco, industrial designer of Miami, Fla." – p. 8R, ¶ 3
    • b "The basic price of $2,950 includes an aluminum shell, consisting of the walls and roof [...] The company estimates that a complete house, including land, will sell for about $7,500." – p. 1R, ¶ 2
  57. ^ I. "We've Changed The Rules", Popular Science., Vol. 190, No. 3, March 1967: 215 
  58. ^ Fresco, Jacque. (May 1961), "Project Americana: Man in the World of Tomorrow", Feedback., Vol. 1, No. 5: 6 
  59. ^ Dunn, Kristine. (June 5, 1962). "Big Break Needs Break". The Miami News (Miami). pp. 4B. 
    • "CBS (Canadian Broadcasting) has approached Channel 2's Fred Fischer and Miamian Jacques Fresco's about a series on Fresco's ideas after Fischer guested Fresco on his past two Friday night shows." – p. 4B, col. 2, ¶ 1
  60. ^ Pounds, Ralph L.; Bryner, James R. (1973), The School in American Society (3rd ed.), New York/London: The Macmillan Co., p. 589 
    • "Keyes and Fresco, in their recent utopia Looking Forward, indicate clearly what the choices are: ... All three factors interact with each other. The value structure not only influences the method of thinking and the technology, but it is, in turn, influenced by them. The method of thinking that man employs is affected by his value structure and the technology of the age, but it also plays a part in modifying both of these. Similarly, the technology of any given civilization interacts in a mutual way with the value structure and the methods of thinking. These pregnant factors might be viewed as three gears that mesh with each other." – p. 589, ¶ 1
  61. ^ Maynard, Elliot (2006), "Planetary and Solar Resource Management", Beyond Earth, Ontario: Apogee Books, pp. 195–196, ISBN 978-1-894959-41-4 
    • The concept of a central computer, which monitors and regulates global society, was envisioned by futurists Ken Keyes, Jr. and Jacque Fresco as early as 1969, when they described a six-foot diameter sphere named Corcen, which would network and integrate computerized information, and serve as a "knowledge bank" that would regulate the lives of individuals in future global society, and coordinate what they referred to as a 'humanized man-machine symbiosis.'" – p. 195, ¶ 3
  62. ^ Cross, Michael S. (1970.), "Review: 'Looking Forward'", Library Journal., Vol. 94: 612 
    • "Using as illustration a typical 21st-century couple, the authors picture an ideal cybernetic society in which want has been banished and work and personal possessions no longer exist; individual gratification is the total concern." – p. 612, col. 3
  63. ^ "The Architect". Spectra Magazine. November 19, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2013. 
    • a Attempts at starting a TV show on CBS and publishing a book under such sonorous titles as 'Looking Forward' and 'Project Americana', Fresco was really pushing it. But no one was buying. – ¶ 6
  64. ^ a b I. The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Annual Report (Original Document). Miami: The University of Miami. 1970. 
    • "Seminar: Sociocyberneering, a possible alternative to the future."
    II. Bassett, Melanie. (March 6, 1970). "Man Need Not Fear Machine". The Carolinian (Raleigh, NC). p. 4. 
    • "Jacque Fresco, speaking at the College Editors Conference, in Washington D.C. last weekend, said [...]" – p. 4, col. 3, ¶ 1
    III. "Series to Explore Suicide or Survival". St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, FL). April 23, 1970. pp. 3B. 
    • "'Suicide or Survival?' The question will be explored in a four-day series of programs beginning May 4 at the University of South Florida in Tampa. [...] On May 5, Fresco, co-author of the book "Looking Forward" and an inventor of medical equipment and prefab aluminum housing, will discuss some possible solutions to pollution problems." – p. 3B, col. 1, ¶ 1,3
    IV. Steigleman, Walt. (October 20, 1971). "'Jules Vernesque' City Shows Plans at USF". The Oracle (Tampa, FL). p. 9. 
    • "Jacques Fresco, nationally recognized scientist – inventor – lecturer and coordinator of the Sociocyberneering effort, will discuss the project with interested students, faculty and staff today at 2 p.m. in the University Center (UC) Ballroom." – p. 9, col. 1, ¶ 2
  65. ^ Sociocyberneering Inc., Florida Department of State Division of Corporations, retrieved 2013-05-28 
  66. ^ a b Hagan, Alisa. (June 13, 1979). "Environmentalists Put City of Future on Display". Hollywood Sun Tattler (Hollywood, FL). p. 1. 
    • a,b "Fresco and his 250-member organization are not yet silent. They donate hours each week to research projects and draw blueprints of model cities, transit systems, airplanes and any other area of civilzed life needing improvement." – p. 1, ¶ 4
  67. ^ a b Hewitt, Paul G. (2010), "Rotational Motion", Conceptual physics, Boston: Pearson/Addison-Wesley, p. 122, ISBN 978-0-13-137583-3 
    • a "I attended Fresco's dynamic series of weekly lectures in Miami Beach and sometimes at his home in Coral Gables."
    • b "Charismatic Jacque has always been a futurist ... As a teacher, Jacque was and is the very best. He certainly was an enormous influence in my own teaching. He taught me to introduce concepts new to a student by first comparing them to familiar ones – teaching by analogy."
  68. ^ Jenrette, David. (February 11, 1971), "Jacques Fresco", Gold Coast Free Press., Vol. 1, No. 1: 10 
    • a "Every night (except Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday) Dr. Fresco admits the public to his presence from 8:30 to about 11p.m. at a dollar-a-head (if you have one; a dollar, that is). Coffee afterward [...] is optional." — p. 10, col. 1, ¶ 6
    • b "Fresco is not of this time, he is a prophet of days to come, an emissary of the future ..." — p. 10, col. 1, ¶ 4
  69. ^ "Redesigning A Culture", Science News., Vol. 99, No. 26, June 26, 1971: 430, JSTOR 3955843 
  70. ^ Cornish, Edward S. (1979), The Future, Washington, D.C.: World Future Society, p. 104, ISBN 978-0-930242-07-7 
  71. ^ Goldmark, Peter C.; Edson, Lee (1973), Maverick Inventor, New York: Saturday Review Press/E.P. Dutton & Co., p. 253, ISBN 978-0-8415-0046-4 
    • "Finally, a Florida architect, Jacques Fresco, has devised a kind of self-contained, one mile-in-diameter city arranged in the form of concentric rings of high-rise buildings interconnected by additional buildings, the whole project resembling the spokes of a wheel ..." – p. 253, ¶ 2
  72. ^ The Larry King Show (August 19, 1974). Larry King Interview (Television). Miami: WTVJ 4. 
  73. ^ Renick, Ralph; Abrell, Joe; Fresco, Jacque (January 26, 1974). Montage Interview (Television). Montage (WTVJ). 
  74. ^ Colebrook Jr., Faul F. (July 4, 1971). "Site Sought". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH). pp. 9B. 
    • "An 80-acre site for a very special kind of circular city is being sought in southern Florida by a Miami-based non-profit organization called Sociocyberneering, Inc. Essentially, the new community is to be a kind of university, according to the organization's president and founder, Jacque Fresco." — p. 9B, col. 7, ¶ 1
  75. ^ Anderson, Marie. (April 29, 1973). "Living Should Be Easier Says Systems Advocate". The Miami Herald (Miami, FL). pp. 10H. 
    • "[...] are out to try to get a small segment of Jacque Fresco's Total Enclosure System built on ten acres down in South County." — p. 10H, col. 2, ¶ 1
  76. ^ a b c Schmadeke, Steve (October 27, 2002). "Venus Before Dawn". Naples Daily News (Naples, FL). pp. 1G & 3G. 
    • a,b "Not surprisingly, there have been some setbacks to Fresco's grand vision. The biggest came in 1978 ... The group's plan collided with the Collier County zoning board ... Fresco says, 'So they all pulled out, they left.' ... Fresco sold his share of the Naples land and his Miami home ..." — p. 3G, col. 1, ¶ 9
    • c "[people] who know Fresco call him one of the last true idealists, with a potent blend of inventiveness and obsession ... He's the rare idealist, they say, who has refused to make the normal accommodations with life." — p. 3G, col. 1, ¶ 2
    • d "It's true that his ideas, with variations in scope not only have been tried in another era. They owe much to Technocratic thought, a 1930s movement advocating the reform of social structures under the guidance of scientists and engineers and writers like Paul Ehlrich." — p. 1G, col. 2, ¶ 1
  77. ^ Tice, Neysa. (October 29, 1981). "Venus Is Headquarters For Sociocyberneering Research Center". Lake Placid Journal (Lake Placid, FL). pp. 1B. 
    • "'The future will be tremendous, once we unleash it,' he says from Sociocyberneering's Venus research center, founded 10 months ago." — p. 1B, ¶ 5
  78. ^ I.Bermudez, Jose. (June 8, 1986). "Man Works on Futuristic World". News Sun (Sebring, FL). pp. 1B. 
    • "But his most ambitious project is yet to come. The wadding pool and film studio are the foundation for the movie he plans called 'Welcome to the Future.'" — p. 1B, col., ¶ 3
    II. Bermudez, Jose. (March 16, 1988). "This Man From Venus Works on Future Now". Sebring News (Sebring, FL). 
    • "The basic philosophy of Sociocyberneering, may be soon explained in a movie Fresco wants to make in his own studio, which is replete with models of futuristic looking cars, airplanes and houses." — p., col., ¶ 8
    III. McKay, Bob. (September 8, 1988). "Local Pair at Work on Their Concept of a Future World". Lake Placid Journal (Lake Placid, FL). pp. 1B. 
    • "The project on which they're working now is 30-minute 'trailer' for an eventually longer movie about the futuristic city they hope to build between Highlands County and Ft. Myers. [...] Through the trailer and its subsequent movie, he feels he can show and explain the various functions of the society so the average person will be able to better comprehend. He estimates the cost of the 'trailer' at $60,000. He and Meadows have built many of the sets that will be used." — p. 1B, col. 2,3, ¶ 2,1
  79. ^ Eyman, Scott. "The Great Idea Chase". Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, FL). p. 7 date = July 14, 1985. 
    • "To finance what they have done thus far, Fresco free-lances his designs for tools and prostheses to doctors and clients like Pratt and Whitney ..."
  80. ^ "Designing the Future of Hospitality", National Hotel Executive., March 2000 ; Hardy, John R., Venus's 'Utopia' May Remain Elusive, Yet Industry Values Should Be Questioned, p. 6 ; Balfe, Christopher J., Venus Project Could Pave Vision for Lodging Industry, p. 6 ; Wolff, Howard, Design Firm Credits Futuristic Concepts, p. 7 
  81. ^ Resource Based Economy Trademark, United States Patent & Trademark Office
  82. ^ Face of the Future (Digital Video). TV New Zealand. 2010.  Retrieved: March 23, 2011
    • "At 94, it's a future that Jacque will never see. But it won't stop him spending the next seven months traveling the globe promoting his vision. It's called the Venus Project and he says 50 million people around the world are now involved or aware of it." – 00:12–00:31
  83. ^ World Tour Lecture Dates[dead link]
  84. ^ Joseph P. (2011). "Zeitgeist: Moving Forward"
  85. ^ Tracy, Liz (November 19, 2011). "The Venus Project's Jacque Fresco Lectures Occupy Miami on His Visions of a Utopian Future". Miami New Times (Miami, FL). 
  86. ^ "Free Documentary Solves Global Debt Crisis in 48 Minutes". PRWeb. April 15, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012. 
  87. ^ Adams, Mark (June 22, 2012). "Future My Love (Review)". Screen Daily. 
    • " The film had its world premiere at the Edinburgh International Film Festival." – ¶ 2
  88. ^ EDI Film Fest,
  89. ^ a b Newman, Alex (March 10, 2011). "Zeitgeist and the Venus Project". The New American. Retrieved March 23, 2011. 
    • a "The New American had an opportunity to spend the day with Fresco and his partner during the project's 28-country "World Tour" stop in Stockholm, Sweden." – ¶ 22
    • b "Countless critics have drawn parallels between Fresco's vision and totalitarian systems that have wreaked havoc and death in the past such as communism, socialism, Marxism, and fascism. But Fresco rejects those comparisons." – ¶ 49
  90. ^ The Venus Project Tours
  91. ^ Research Center The Venus Project. Retrieved: March 31, 2011
  92. ^ Aims and Proposals The Venus Project. Retrieved: March 31, 2011
  93. ^ Shaw, Tristan; Fernandez, Everest (April 26, 2010), Profits or People?: Jacque Fresco Rethinks the New World Order, Urban Garden Magazine, retrieved March 3, 2013 
  94. ^ a b Social Security Death Index Master File: Isaac Fresco, Social Security Administration 
  95. ^ a b Social Security Death Index Master File: Lena Fresco, Social Security Administration 
  96. ^ Florida Divorce Index, Miami, FL: Florida Department of Health, July 1957 
  97. ^ I. "2 Sikh Converts Charged By Army". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). September 20, 1973. p. 2. 
    • "The lawyer, Robert Rivkin, said his clients were James Broadwell, 21, a tank driver, of Superior, Wisconsin, and Richard Fresco, 20, a scout car observer from Miami." – p. 2, ¶ 2
    II. "News in Brief: A special U.S. Army". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). October 28, 1973. p. 2. 
    • "A special U.S. Army court-martial in Wuerzburg, West Germany; sentenced two soldiers who converted to the Sikh religion of India last September to three months' confinement at hard labor: Pvt. Richard Fresco, 20. of Miami, Fla., and Pfc. James K. Broadwell, 21, of Superior, Wis."
  98. ^ Social Security Death Index Master File: Richard Fresco, Social Security Administration 
  99. ^ Bambi Fresco Obituary, Retrieved: March 9, 2011.
  100. ^ Retrieved September-4-2013
  101. ^ a b c d Notaro, Anna (Dec/Jan 2005.), "Imagining the Cybernetic City: The Venus Project", Nebula., Vol. 2, No. 4: 1–20 
    • a "Etzler pre-dates Fresco ... by a century, but his approach has similarities, not just in the potential for technology to minimize the need for menial labor, but also for his emphasis on the practical attainability of a better world." – p. 12, ¶ 1
    • d Similarly to Soleri, another visionary architect, R. Buckminster Fuller devoted his imaginative efforts to respond to the challenges posed by the modern world. Like in the case of Jacque Fresco, Fuller's motivation was an acute social awareness of the profound economic disparities which characterize our 'supposedly' advanced way of living. Although Fuller did not come up with a whole new blueprint for humanity, he sought to 'do more with less' ..." – p. 9
  102. ^ a b c d Grønborg, Morten (2010.), "The World According to Fresco", Future Orientation., Issue 1: 15–19 
    • a "The idea isn't unlike Ebenezer Howard's Garden Cities of Tomorrow, see page 38, though naturally it is infinitely more modern." – p. 18, col. 2, ¶ 1
    • b "The tight-knit metropolitan society is the key to the project, see page 39, which proposes a tabula rasa approach ..."
    • e "His followers – many of them with roots in The Zeitgeist Movement – call him 'a modern Da Vinci'." – p. 18, col. 1, ¶ info box
  103. ^ Humphries, Maria; St Jane, Michelle (2011.), "Transformative Learning in Troubling Times: Investing in Hope", Society and Business Review., Vol 6, No. 1: 31 
    • "'No where have we really overcome what Thorstein Veblen called 'the predatory phase' of human development. The observable economic facts belong to that phase and even such laws as we can derive from them are not applicable to other phases' (Einstein, 1949). Jaques Fresco ... takes a similar view. Business and monetary economies generally he argues are predatory – devised to serve business and the monetary economies – not humanity." – p. 31, ¶ 1
  104. ^ Catran, Jack. (May 1961), "Man in Society", Feedback., Vol. 1, No. 5: 1 
  105. ^ a b Coulter, Arthur. (Oct. 1996), "The Venus Project: A Review", Journal of the Synergetic Society, No. 247: 10 
    • a It is based on evolution by design, addressed to real human needs, not the blind pursuit of more wealth by the wealthy which now dominates the political and economic processes. [...] It does not call for revolution or resort to the political process [...]" – p. 10, ¶ 9
    • b Many years ago, the Harvard physiologist Walter Cannon, wrote an essay, "The Body Physiologic and the Body Politic". In it he pointed out that the human system was organized to provide a stable internal environment for the cells and tissues of the body. Building on the work of Claude Bernard, he introduced the term "homeostasis" to describe this state. If the cells need more glucose, the system responds by providing more glucose, for example. Cannon suggested that our economic/political system should be similarly organized. Over 60 years later, the Venus Project may provide a way to achieve this.
    • c Instead of "urban renewal" – which achieves so little and costs so much and mostly makes the rich richer – the Project envisions designing new cities – "cities that think". – p. 10, ¶ 9
  106. ^ Smitha, Elaine. (2011), Screwing Mother Nature for Profit, London: Watkins Publishing, p. 74, ISBN 978-1-78028-018-9 
    • "It is an integrated system, just like the human body. All aspects of it function with a unified goal of a healthy, self-sustaining system. Fresco's designs also interface with comfort and utility. He bases his concept on the capacity of the human body to be efficient, flexible, strong and enduring, integrally supported by a neatly packaged organized system of blood and extracellular fluids. Each relies on the other, and some cells even multitask when the need is there. Nature must be in harmony to efficiently function, to make the flowers bloom and emit a fragrant perfume. Harmony is our goal in life and in business, just as it is in biology. " – p. 74, ¶ 5
  107. ^ Schubert, Lawrence. (August 1997.), "Future Perfect", Detour.: 86 
    • a "The amiable and erudite visionary believes that 'the intelligent application of science and technology' will provide the bridge to cross over into new thinking ..."
    • b "Fresco is not alone in his ambitions visionary Italian architect Paolo Soleri has been pursuing his vision of a brave new world at Arcosanti, an experimental community in the high desert of Arizona ..."
  108. ^ a b "Welcome to the Future Review", Video Librarian., Vol. 13, No. 5, Oct. 1998: 66 
    • "Futurist Jacque Fresco's vision of the new society ... has more than a faint Marxist-utopian ring to it, except that in Fresco's world – a kind of Bucky Fuller landscape on steroids ..." – ¶ 1
  109. ^ Conn, David R. (October 1, 2007), "Future By Design Review", Library Journal., Vol. 132, No. 16: 101 
    • "Fresco is often compared to R. Buckminster Fuller, but in this presentation he lacks Fuller's transcendence."
  110. ^ Fresco, Jacque (May/June 1994.), "Designing the Future", The Futurist., Vol. 28, No. 3: 30 
    • "Jacque Fresco invites comparison with the late R. Buckminster Fuller and Paolo Soleri. All three may be classed as comprehensive designers seeking to realize in practical terms their grand visions of a better future world. All three dreamed on a grandiose scale and then struggled with the nitty-gritty details of realizing their great dreams – at least in some measure – in concrete form."
  111. ^ Goldberg, Michelle (February 2, 2011). "Brave New World". The Tablet. Retrieved March 23, 2011. 
    • a,c "It's a global organization devoted to a kind of sci-fi planetary communism ..." ¶ 4
    • b "At 96, the bearded, impish Fresco suddenly has a large global following ..." – ¶ 19
  112. ^ Swan, Rhonda (May 1, 2009). "A Dream Worth Having". The Palm Beach Post (W. Palm Beach, FL). pp. 12A. 
    • "For many, the notion of such a world conjures up those dreaded words socialism and communism ..."
  113. ^ Murphy, Robert P. (August 30, 2010). "Venus Needs Some Austrians". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved December 30, 2011. 
  114. ^ a b c Kuznetsov, Yevgeny; Vakhshtayn, Viktor; Filonovich, Sergey; Khramkova, Ekaterina. (December 22, 2011). Knowledge Stream 10: Engineer for an Ideal Future (Video). Moscow, Russia: Digital October. 
  115. ^ Olsen-Rule, Nikolina (2010), "Utopian Spaces", Future Orientation, Issue 1: 41 
  116. ^ Grønborg, Morten (2010), "Editorial: Utopia", Future Orientation. 1: 5 
  117. ^ Obrist, Hans-Ulrich (Dec 2007), "Futures, Cities", Journal of Visual Culture 6 (3): 360 
  118. ^ 7 News Features: The Venus Project (Digital Video). WSVN 7 News. 2009. 
    • a "'Turkey wants me to come back and design a museum of the future, new city.'" – 03:55–03:59
    • b "Maybe because it seems idealistic, or maybe it's hard to look ahead when the present is so bleak." – 00:01–00:09
  119. ^ Weist, Jerry (2002), Bradbury: An Illustrated Life, New York: HarperCollins, p. 13, ISBN 978-0060011826 
    • " [Ray Bradbury is] "a coruscating Roman candle in the pyrotechnical company of H. G. Wells, Aldous Huxley, Philip Wylie, Jacque Fresco, Hugo Gernsback, Arthur C. Clarke, Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein, and, yes Edgar Rice Burroughs" – p. 13
  120. ^ Doug Drexler (2006). Doug Drexler Interview (Digital Video). Docflix.  Retrieved: March 23, 2011
  121. ^ Feldman, Karen (January 24, 1997). "A Future Without Money". Philadelphia Tribune (Philadelphia, PA). pp. 4B. 
    • a "Clarke has sent him the names of people who might be able to help him get exposure and financial backing to build his first city, an experimental one." – p. 4B, col. 2, ¶ 12
    • b "Dr. Art Coulter, professor emeritus of the University of North Carolina, also found Fresco's vision impressive ... Coulter, a biomedical engineer, said one of its best features is its emphasis 'that it should be done not for profit, but to meet the needs of human beings.'" – p. 4B, col. 2, ¶ 15
  122. ^ "Author Interviews: Paul G. Hewitt". Pearson. 2003. Retrieved March 23, 2011. 
    • "There are three big influences. First is Burl Grey ... Then there was his friend, Jacque Fresco, who demonstrated inspirational teaching in his public lectures about building a saner world via technology. The third is dear friend Ken Ford ... All three greatly inspired me to be inspirational to others."
  123. ^ Shostak, Arthur B. (2005), Futuristics: Looking Ahead, Chelsea House Publishers, p. 7, ISBN 978-0-7910-8401-4 
    • "Jacque Fresco and Roxanne Meadows shared their extraordinary artwork. Many whose ideas are not aired directly in the book nevertheless made a vital contribution."
  124. ^ "Jacques Fresco Honorary Guide of the Raelian Movement" (website). October 24, 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
    • "Rael has bestowed the title of Honorary Guide of the Raelian Movement to Jacques Fresco." – ¶ 1
  125. ^ Exemplar Zero Lifetime Achievement Award. Retrieved: March 30, 2011.
    • "Exemplar-Zero are proud to announce that futurist Jacque Fresco has been designated the Inaugural E-Z Awardee for Lifetime Achievement. The E-Z Awards will take place in Summer 2011." – News & Events
  126. ^ Sustainatopia Honors '12,

External links

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