...The connection between more and better has been broken; our needs for many products and services are already more than adequately met, and many of our as-yet-unsatisfied needs will be met not by producing more, but by producing differently, producing other things, or even producing less. This is especially true as regards our needs for air, water, space, silence, beauty, time and human contact...From the point where it takes only 1,000 hours per year or 20,000 to 30,000 hours per lifetime to create an amount of wealth equal to or greater than the amount we create at the present time in 1,600 hours per year or 40,000 to 50,000 hours in a working life, we must all be able to obtain a real income equal to or higher than our current salaries in exchange for a greatly reduced quantity of work...
Neither is it true any longer that the more each individual works, the better off everyone will be. The present crisis has stimulated technological change of an unprecedented scale and speed: 'the micro-chip revolution'. The object and indeed the effect of this revolution has been to make rapidly increasing savings in labour, in the industrial, administrative and service sectors. Increasing production is secured in these sectors by decreasing amounts of labour. As a result, the social process of production no longer needs everyone to work in it on a full-time basis. The work ethic ceases to be viable in such a situation and work-based society is thrown into crisis...—André Gorz, Critique of economic Reason, Gallile, 1989
 Examples of implementation
Many different sources of funding have been suggested for a guaranteed minimum income for non-socialist economic structures:
- Negative income tax
- Income taxes
- Sales taxes
- Capital gains taxes
- Fiat money
- Inheritance taxes
- Wealth taxes, e.g. property tax
- Luxury taxes
- Elimination of current income support programs and tax deductions
- Repayment of the grant at death or retirement
- Land and natural resource taxes
- Pollution taxes
- Fees from government-created monopolies (such as the broadcast spectrum and utilities)
- Money creation or seignorage
- Tariffs, the lottery, or sin taxes
- Technology taxes
- Tobin tax
- Value added tax or other Consumption taxes
 CriticismsOne critical view of Basic Income theorizes that it would have a negative effect on work incentive and labor supply. Even when the benefits are not permanent, the hours worked—by the recipients of the benefit—are observed to decline by 5%, a decrease of 2 hours in a typical 40 hour work week, in one study:
While experiments have been conducted in the United States and Canada, those participating knew that their benefits were not permanent and, consequently, they were not likely to change their behaviour as much or in the same manner had the GAI been ongoing. As a result, total hours worked fell by about five percent on average. The work reduction was largest for second earners in two-earner households and weakest for the main earner. Further, the negative work effect was higher the more generous the benefit level.However, in studies of the Mincome experiment in rural Manitoba, the only two groups who worked less in a significant way were new mothers, and teenagers working to support their families. New mothers spent this time with their infant children, and working teenagers put significant additional time into their schooling. Under Mincome, "the reduction of work effort was modest: about one per cent for men, three per cent for wives, and five per cent for unmarried women."
Another study that contradicted such decline in work incentive was the Namibian pilot project implemented in 2008 and 2009 in the Omitara village; the assessment of the project after its conclusion found that economic activity actually increased, particularly through the launch of small businesses, and reinforcement of the local market by increasing households' buying power.
 Further reading
- Daniel Raventós and Julie Wark, "Indignation, Basic Income and the First Social Law. Taking It to the Streets in Spain" "Counterpunch", 14 May 2012.
- Daniel Raventós and Julie Wark, "General Strike in the Kingdom of Spain: the Political Economy and Basic Income" "Opendemocracy", 30 March 2012.
- Rubén M. Lo Vuolo, Daniel Raventós and Pablo Yanes, "Basic Income in Times of Economic Crisis: The War Social and Working Rights," Counterpunch (Weekend Edition, November 5–7, 2010).
- Rubén Lo Vuolo and Daniel Raventós (16 July 2009). "Basic Income: good in the boom, essential in the crisis". On Line Opinion (Australia’s e-journal of social and political debate). http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=9172. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- "History of Basic Income," BIEN (Basic Income Earth Network).
- Social Contract Revisited publications: Basic Income and Income Support in the Modern Welfare State, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society (Contributors: Amir Paz-Fuchs, Peter Edelman, Amitai Etzioni, Charles Murray, Michael Opielka, Dalmer Hoskins, Avia Spivak, Frank Bloch). [ Retrieved 17-02-2011 ].
 See also
- Asset-based egalitarianism (variant of basic income)
- Basic income in the Netherlands
- Cash transfers
- FairTax: Monthly tax rebate
- Guaranteed minimum income
- Market socialism
- Minimum wage
- Negative income tax
- Old Age Security
- Refusal of work
- Social dividend
- Social welfare provision
- Speenhamland system
- Universal Credit
- Work–life balance
- Working time
- Citizens' Income and Green Economics
- History of Basic Income, Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN), retrieved on 18 June 2009
- "About Basic Income," BIEN (Basic Income Earth Network)
- U.S. Basic Income Guarantee Network
- Social Dividend versus Basic Income Guarantee in Market Socialism, by Marangos, John. 2004. International Journal of Political Economy, vol. 34, no. 3, Fall 2004.
- *BIEN: frequently asked questions
- Basic Income Studies: How it could be organised, Different Suggestions
- See Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend; the fund's revenues are no longer only from oil.
- "The Rise and Fall of a Basic Income Guarantee Bill in the United States Congress", Al Sheahen, The US Basic Income Guarantee Network (USBIG), 2008
- "1970s' Manitoba poverty experiment called a success". CBC News. March 25, 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/story/2010/03/25/mb-poverty-experiment.html.
- Namibian Basic Income Grant Coalition
- "NewsFlash of the Basic Income Earth Network", BIEN nr. 49, 2008; BIG Coalition Namibia
- Assessment report after 6 months of BIG pilot project
- How a Basic Income Program Saved a Namibian Village Speigel Online, August 24, 2009.
- Basic Income Grant Coalition: Pilot Project
- "Iran's bold economic reform: Economic jihad", The Economist, June 23rd 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/18867440
- Philippe van Parijs (ed.), "Arguing for Basic Income: Ethical Foundations for a Radical Reform", London: Verso, 1992
- Saar Boerlage: "Het basisinkomen stimuleert op een positieve manier de inzet van het individu in de samenleving" (Basic income stimulates in a positive way the input of the individual into the society), interview, Vereniging Basisinkomen: Nieuwsbrief Basisinkomen 48, 2007
- "Critique of Economic Reason", André Gorz, in: Peter Waterman, Ronaldo Munck, "Labour Worldwide in the Era of Globalisation: Alternative Union Models in the New World Order", Macmillan, London, 1999
- PDF Michael Hardt – Antonio Negri, "Empire", Harvard University Press, 2000
- Book review by Conall Boyle, Feb 2007: In our hands: A plan to replace the welfare state by Charles Murray, Washington DC, 2006
- "Universal Basic Income: its Core and Essence", Keith Rankin, New Zealand, 1998
- "Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom", Daniel Raventós, Pluto Press, London, 2007
- Osmo Soininvaara, "Hyvinvointivaltion eloonjäämisoppi" (A survival doctrine for the welfare state), Juva, WSOY, 1994, 298 p, ISBN 951-0-20100-6
- Guy Standing and Michael Samson (eds.), "A Basic Income Grant for South Africa", University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town, 2003
- Guy Standing (ed.), "Promoting Income Security as a Right: Europe and North America", Anthem Press, London, 2005
- "Citizen's Basic Income: The Answer is Blowing in Wind" DOC, Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy, USBIG 5th Congress, 2006
- Walter van Trier, "Everyone a King. An Investigation into the Meaning and Significance of the Debate on Basic Incomes with Special Reference to Three Episodes from the British Inter-War Experience", Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Fakulteit politieke en sociale wetenschappen, PhD thesis, 1995
- Bertrand Russell, Roads to Freedom. Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism, London: Unwin Books (1918), pp. 80-81 and 127
- Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community? (New York: Harper & Row, 1967)
- Steensland, Brian (2007). The failed welfare revolution. Princeton University Press. pp. 70–78. ISBN 0-691-12714-X, 9780691127149.
- "How Mark stands on the issues" Gravel presidential campaign, 2008
- Herbert A. Simon, "UBI and the Flat Tax. Also winner of Nobel Peace Prize, archbishop Desmond Tutu advocates basic income guarantee. A response to 'A Basic Income for All' by Philippe Van Parijs", Boston Review, 2000
- Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom, Chapter 9, page 124, Routledge, London 1944
- Does he support a guaranteed minimum income? Hayek: "I have always said that I am in favor of a minimum income for every person in the country." from Hayek on Hayek: An Autobiographical Dialogue by F. A. Hayek, edited by Stephen Kresge and Leif Wenar (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994)
- Solow, Robert (1987). “An Economist’s View of the Income Maintenance Experiments,” in Lessons from the Income Maintenance Experiments, ed. Alicia H. Munnell, proceedings of a conference held in September 1986 (Boston, MA: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1987). pp. 218–226.
- Milton Friedman, "Capitalism and Freedom", University of Chicago Press, 1962
- Hayek, Friedrich A. Von. The Political Order of a Free People. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979. 56. Print.
- James Edward Meade, "Full Employment Regained?", Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-55697-X
- Erik Olin Wright, "Basic Income as a Socialist Project," paper presented at the annual US-BIG Congress, March 4–6, 2005 (University of Wisconsin, March 2005) .
- Richard Parncutt, "Free enterprise without poverty"
- Rifkin, Jeremy (1995). The End of Work – The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era (1st ed.). New York: Tarcher/Putnam. ISBN 978-0874777796.
- Martin Sandbu (May 19, 2012). "Not for sale". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/faf752aa-9f92-11e1-a255-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1vvLhy9GQ.
- A Future for Socialism, by Roemer, John. 1994. Harvard University Press: "Stock prices are quoted not in currency but in coupons, issued to citizens on attaining their majority, not convertible to cash, and reverting to the treasury at death."
- On the Economic Theory of Socialism, by Lange, Oskar. 1936. The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1: "It seems, therefore, convenient to regard the income of consumers as being composed of two parts: one part being the receipts for the labour services performed and the other part being a social dividend constituting the individual's share in the income derived from the capital and the natural resources owned by society."
- Improving Social Security in Canada – Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper, Government of Canada, 1994
- The Need for Basic Income: An Interview with Philippe Van Parijs, Imprints, Vol. 1, No. 3 (March 1997). The interview was conducted by Christopher Bertram.
- A Town Without Poverty? Canada's only experiment in guaranteed income finally gets reckoning
- A guaranteed annual income: From Mincome to the millennium (PDF) Derek Hum and Wayne Simpson
- The Basic income, a cultural impulse, german movie (available in more than 20 languages)
- Center for Economic and Social Justice
- Basic income for all by Philippe van Parijs, Boston Review
- Guaranteed Basic Income Studies: How it could be organised, Different Suggestions
- Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN)
- Basic Income Studies: An International Journal of Basic Income Research
- US Basic Income Guarantee Network
- Citizen's Income
- smi2le, a multilingual journal about the basic income guarantee
- Lectures on basic income
- French network for unconditional basic income
The Blogger Ref Link http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Transfinancial_Economics